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At the end of 1915, the Oryol revolutionaries had the idea to enter

The composition of the legal “Society of intelligent entertainment”, bringing together around him

its activities. They succeeded in the beginning of 1916. Society suited

amateur dramatic performances, vocal and musical evenings,

and in mid-February, a lecture was given by an employee of the “Russian

Vedomosti ”E.D. Lumps “Iskachi and pushers” about the high cost of life. Summer

1916 The Society rented a city garden, to the pleasure of

intellectuals replacing the military brass band with symphonic string21.

No more activity “Society of reasonable entertainment” itself

manifested22.

The other side of the group was the exchange of literature

revolutionary content. In September 1914, Musatov was received

19 Ibid. L. 25. The protocol of interrogation of the witness.27/12 1914. 20 Musatov, I.D. Us.soch. P.86. 21The same. P.92. 22 GARF, f.102, OO, op.245, d.167, p.54, l.8. Report on the political situation and the state of affairs in Oryol

provinces to 05.01. 1916

214

proclamation from the Kharkov group of Socialist Revolutionaries, and in October a handwritten copy

Vandervelde’s letters about the war and a copy of the SR proclamation on

Ukrainian language. A small number of proclamations received and

Maximov. A turnout from Moscow in the fall of 1914 came to the painter Timofey

Sapronov from the Union of Builders. As a staunch anti-militarist, he

evaded mobilization. Sapronov brought a small number of anti-war

leaflets of the Moscow Bolshevik organization. Mary kashmenskaya

maintained the closest relationship with members of the United Group and in

the time of their visits, the Eagle brought some illegal

literature. There were plans to get revolutionary literature from

Kharkov, where there worked an illegal Social Revolutionary printing house, and start,

Finally, advocacy. These plans were destroyed in

germ liquidation of the Kharkov group. Activities Orlovsky circle

the conspiracy was stalled. In April 1915, through Uvarov

and Kashmenskaya received a certain amount of illegal literature.

Shortly afterwards, members of the circle were searched.

 By order

the chief of the Provincial Gendarme Department the most active members of the United Group are Musatov, Maksimov, Kashmenskaya and

Kossova were arrested. Nothing wrong with searching

it was not found, so after ten days the girls were released on

freedom, taking into account the fact that although they were uniquely

unfavorable information, but Maria Kashmenskaya, in view of her recent

arrival in the Eagle did not show any active activity. It was

The difficult financial situation of Fani Kossova, which after

conscription brothers to the army was to provide parents, engaged in

bread baking. Musatov and Maximov’s arrest was extended to one

of the month. At the end of the consideration of the case, his assistant

the head of the gendarme office requested immediate expulsion

Musatov and Maximov with the prohibition of his residence within the province

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Once free, Maksimov and Kashmenskaya did not give up 
their attempts to establish contact with political prisoners. 
Having agreed with the warden, they began to visit prisoner Sadkov, 
being in a prison hospital. When information about this reached 
gendarme police, an unexpected raid was carried out, caught in the evening 9 
july young revolutionaries sitting on a bed in a prison hospital where 
they were arrested once again23. 


In August 1915, Maximov was called up for military service, and together with 
recruits went to Zaraysk Ryazan province. Vera Uvarova 
returned to Vladimir, where she was from. Losev went to Moscow. AT 
November, the observation was removed from Maria Kashminskaya. At the end of 1915 Fan 
Kosova joined the Zemsky Distribution Hospital24. it 
the event did not pass by the vigilant “well-wishers” who doubted 
in the medical qualifications of the former hatwoman and attributed her device to 
Jewish backstage hospital25. 
From the end of 1915 to the beginning of 1917, activities as the United Group, 
so the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats separately did not manifest in anything. 
In view of this, their external surveillance was discontinued26. Revolutionary 
the organization in Orel again ceased to exist. Her activities 
had only a theoretical nature, flowing exclusively in a circle 
formed the United group. Among its members existed 
striving for practical revolutionary activity, especially from 
recently arrived people in the Eagle, but they were implemented in the provincial center 
quite difficult. The main activity of the revolutionary circle was 

23 Ibid, l.58. Report of the assistant chief of the OGUU in Orlovsky and other counties. 09.07. 1915 24 Ibid, ll. 288. 49, 47, 95. 25 Ibid., L.421. An anonymous letter to the Oryol Gendarme Office. 
216 
connected with attempts to “establish patronage” of political prisoners, 
practiced in this period. In early 1917, former members 
Groups sympathetic to the SR views, according to police, 
intensified social activities, again trying to participate in 
the work of the regional committee of the Union of Cities 27. 
In the Bryansk district workers under the influence of economic oppression 
formed a solidary solidarity mass, making it more efficient 
campaigning of “unreliable elements” in their environment.

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The following year, hectographized proclamations, signed by a “group of communist anarchists in Bežycy,” appeared on January 5, March 17, and September 14. All of them fell into the hands of the police in one or two copies and had anti-war and anti-imperialist content. Despite the use of undercover information and searches, the perpetrators of the production and in the same place, l. A copy of the proclamation. 31 GARF, f.102, OO, op.245, d.12, p.54-G, l.1. A copy of the proclamation. 32 Ibid, op.245, d.9, p.54-B, l.6. Report of the Head of the OGUU to the Police Department. 27.07. 1914 33 Ibid., D.12, p.54-g, l.3. Report of the Head of OGUU to the Police Department. 06.09. 1915 34 GAOO, f.883, op.1, d. 765, l.541. Report of the assistant head of the OGUU in the Bryansk and Karachev counties to the head of the OGUU.24.09. 1915 35 GARF, f.102, OO, op.246, d.167, p.54, l.3.20. Report of the Head of OGUU to the Police Department. 10.01 and 30.10. 1916 In the same place, d.12, p.54-g, l.1. Report of the Oryol Governor to the Police Department. 30.03. 1916 218 distribution of proclamations were never found.

Analyzing this information, the Police Department concluded that there was an anarchist-communist organization in the Bryansk district, about which the gendarmerie has no information36. The Oryol Gendarme Office recognized that the observation and collection of undercover data on the activities of the group did not produce results, but noted that its composition was known to the police. According to the gendarme detective, there was no organized group of anarchist communists in Bezhitsa, but there were only individuals who kept in touch with each other. Those who arrived in Bezhitsa from exile led an energetic activity to unite them, having established contact with Petersburg anarchists37. By September 1916, 9 persons of anarchist convictions remained in Bezhitsa: one clerk of the plant’s administration, seven workers of the Bryansk plant and one worker of the Raditsky car-building plant. Eleven people by that time were called up to the troops, two left to Moscow, two more to Petersburg, and three to Kharkov38.

 Thus, the originally anarchist group in Bezhitsa numbered up to 30 people. The origin of the proclamations from the military organization of the Socialist-Revolutionaries, according to the police, was a local Socialist-Revolutionary organization. Its center was located in the town of Pochep, Chernigov Province, located 75 versts from Bryansk and connected to it by the Polesskaya Railway. There the organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which had close ties with Bryansk and Bezhitsa, developed and strengthened. When the Bryansk plant SR organization consisted of 24 people. In addition, the Bryansk and Bezhetsk Social Revolutionaries had a direct connection with St. Petersburg39. 36 Ibid, l.2. Attitude of the Police Department to the Head of OGU. 13.05. 1916 37 GARF, f.102, OO, op.244, d.12, p.54-B, l.2. Report for July 1914 on the local organization of anarchist communists. 38 GARF, f.102, OO, op.246, d.12, p.54-G, l.5. Report of the Head of OGUU to the Police Department. 24.08. 1916 39 GARF, f.102, OO, op.244, d.9, p.54-B, l.3. Agent statement. Information on the party of socialist revolutionaries. 24.11. 1913 GARF, f.102, OO, op.245, d.9, p.54-B, l.16. Information from the assistant chief of the OGZhU in Bryansk and Karachevsky counties. 219 It is noteworthy that the proclamations emanating from the SR and anarchist organizations were made in an identical way and had approximately the same anti-war, anti-imperialist and anti-government content. Based on this, it can be assumed that the two groups operating in the same village were interconnected.

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Thus, during the war, anti-government proclamations

Appeared at the Bryansk plant approximately quarterly. Search

Mysterious elusive groups of Social Revolutionaries and anarchists was one of the main

cares of the gendarmerie police of the Bryansk district and undoubtedly became noticeable

fact of local public life. This circumstance was used in

self-interest of one of the representatives of the agents. In October 1916 in

the hands of the police hit two typed proclamations,

signed by the League of Equal Communist Anarchists. Turned on himself

attention is their pompous style, fiction mystery and

threatening tone, the use of digital cipher. It allowed

The police department concludes that the proclamations

rigged. As a result of a special investigation,

found that the proclamations were received by the bailiff of the city of Bryansk from

there is no one Klyagin who expressed a desire to become an informant for the Gendarme

control in exchange for his device at the Bryansk plant with obtaining

armor from the call. Klyagin knew the underworld well before the war

supplied the police with criminal records, in most cases

cases wrong for the sake of reward. He himself, his wife and sister-in-law

livelihood mined theft. Making fake

Klyagin wanted to give more weight to his services40.

The appearance of proclamations originally produced on workers

unfavorable impression. In a patriotic setting, it

40 Ibid, l.7.Submission of the Head of the OGUU to the Police Department. 04.11. 1916

Ibid, l.16 Attitude of the Police Department to the Head of OGUJ. 05.12. 1916

In the same place, l. Report of the assistant chief of the OGUU in Bryansk and Karachev counties. December 4, 1916

220

perceived as a phenomenon emanating from forces hostile to the Russian

statehood and on this basis was not assessed as actions

aimed at protecting the interests of workers, but as an act of subversion.

Thus, the appearance of the first proclamation on July 27, 1914 provoked a protest with

the parties of the Bezhetsk organization of the SR party41. Similar moods

persisted for quite a long time. More than a year appearance on

The plant of proclamations continued to explain the intrigues of the enemy. Between themselves

the craftsmen said that when the Russians were victorious, no one would scatter

proclamations, and when the Germans were driven from Russia, German

proclamations. In Raditz, the famous old Social Democrat, a former worker

leader during the 1905 revolution, told the workers that these proclamations

“Released beyond our desire, by the Germans or their minions.

At present, Russia is already suffering from the dominance of the Germans, who want it

completely enslaved

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Over time, the workers’ attitudes became less and less loyal. 
existing regime, and the issuance of proclamations has ceased to seem so 
reprehensible deed. This position is confirmed by the fact that 
1916 the police did not find the slightest trace of the manufacturers and 
distributors proclamations that were most likely in the village 
Bezhitsa. Moreover, only single copies fell into the hands of the police. 
proclamations that undoubtedly multiplied using 
hectograph in a fairly large number. Obviously, the main part 
Circulation remained in the hands of workers. Given the repeated release 
proclamations, all this would be impossible with a uniquely negative 
attitudes of the working environment towards persons conducting underground activities. 
It should be noted that after the decline of the wave of uncritical patriotism among 
Bryansk workers continued to exist quite a clear hierarchy 
interests. National goals, above all the victory over the enemy, had 
  In the same place, l.19. Interrogation report of the Bryansk district police officer. 03.12. 1916 41 Ibid, op.244, d.9, p.54-g, l.9. Submission of the Head of the OGUU to the Police Department. 19.09. 1914 221 


in the eyes of the workers, a distinct advantage over the protection of their own 
economic interests, which was postponed until the end of the war. 
Closer with the problem of protecting the economic interests of workers 
another revolutionary group that existed in Bezhitsa came into contact. 
In the working environment, the most active individuals, determined to fight 
to defend their economic interests. The police called them “the group 
organized workers which united around the literary circle 
under the Sobriety Society of the Bryansk plant. It is the members of this group. 
were representatives from the workers in negotiations with the factory administration 
during the strike in April-May 1916, which gave the police grounds 
attributed to the “Group of Organized Workers” the leadership of the strike. 9 
a person from the group was arrested43. 


Based on the above, the revolutionary movement in 
provinces during the war can be estimated very modestly. His main feature 
there was a fragmentation. One group did underground work, another 
issued proclamations, the third led the strike. All these groups are not 
intersected with each other, were few. They had to work 
in a hostile philistine environment that retained loyalty 
existing system and it was expected from him effective measures to 
improve their position. Mass consciousness did not perceive 
existing social and political orders as unequivocally 
unfair, not sharing opinions about the need for their fundamental change. 
A limited circle of young revolution Oryol with all his 
wish could not turn the tide. Participants as Oryol and 
Bezhetsk group did not even have solid ideological attitudes. 
Perhaps the fact of their own 
antigovernment activity, “political unreliability”.